Friday, March 24, 2017

Parthenon


SEEING  THE PARTHENON IN A DIFFERENT WAY

A reproduction of the Parthenon in Nashville, TN

World wonders like the Pompeii in Italy and the Parthenon in Greece make many people's bucket lists of what to explore before they die.  But are the original sites always the best or only way to experience the wonders?

I  thought about this question recently when I read about how the British Museum in London replicated one of the 15 Metopes which Lord Elgin had taken from the Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens.  Originally there had been 92 of these marble 5-feet-by-5-feet marble high relief figures in various battles circling the upper outside wall of the Parthenon. 

Depicted are the battle with the giants, battle with the Amazons, the Sack of Troy and the Battle of the Centaurs.  The front wall was of centaurs, half-horse-half man, battling Greeks after the centaurs tried to abduct Greek women.

This means to see the Parthenon you would really need to go to two places, Athens and London.  I visited Athens in 1972 with my wife and our two oldest teenage daughters. 

We admired the remnants of the building as the epitome of Greek culture, but in another way we found it a sad sight with rubble lying on all sides and most of the statuary destroyed, damaged or taken somewhere else.

Before 1687 the Parthenon had been in excellent condition because of its original masterful construction in 456B.C.  In 1687 during a war between Greeks and the Turks,  a gunpowder explosion did significant damage to the interior.  Even the sculptures transferred to the British Museum by Lord Elgin had missing pieces such as heads, arms, legs. 

Statues from the Greek Parthenon now housed in the British Museum in London

The British Museum picked one Metope to replicate, a centaur attacking a Greek who was on his back.  Both heads were missing, the centaur was missing parts of four legs and both arms, and the Greek was missing a leg and an arm.


A drawing from 1674 showed the Metope with both warriors in full body with heads.  The heads had been taken by a Danish naval officer and are now in the Danish National Museum, Copenhagen.

With this material available the British Museum was able to make a 3D picture of what the Metopes had looked like with all its parts, and by using a 3D printer had been able to make an exact copy of the physical object.  The copy allowed them to add other details, such as the Greek's sword, his head piece and cloak.  The Greeks painted their sculptures and this added drama and emotion to the completed Metope. 

When we visited Athens, the Greeks’ point of view was that Elgin had stolen their property and that the only honorable thing would be to return them.  With this breakthrough in recreating exact replicas that give a truer pictures of what the originals were like will make it possible for Greece to partially  recondition the Parthenon and restore it to some of its original glory.  

In the meantime if you don't want to wait, an excellent full-size reproduction is in Nashville, Tenn.  Nashville built a temporary replica of the Parthenon in 1897 for the Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition.

The builders got permission to make plaster replicas of the Elgin Marbles, which were displayed along the sides of the interior. The building was so popular, it was left standing. When it began to show its age, the city rebuilt a complete permanent replica that was opened in 1931. As marble is extremely expensive, it was built principally of reinforced concrete.

Later renovations included unveiling a nearly 43-foot statue in 1990 of Athena, a replica of the original statue inside the Parthenon.  Actually this copy gives you a fuller picture of the what original was like than the original in Athens does.

In Athens you are standing on the ground that the Greeks stood on, and you are in presence of real history.  In Nashville you are in the visual presence of what the Parthenon really looked like.

 Take your choice if you can't make all three spots--Athens, London, or Nashville.


The 45 foot tall reproduction of Athena in Nashville, Parthenon


A reproduction of a frieze off the wall of the Parthenon


A Metope in the British Museum showing the kind of objects that can now be reproduced on 3D printers






Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Vice President's Museum


THE QUAYLE VICE PRESIDENTIAL LEARNING CENTER: HUNTINGTON, IN
The Dan Quayle Vice Presidents Museum in Huntington, Indiana


            When we were near the Quayle Vice Presidential Learning Center in Huntington, IN., we decided to drop in, as we are fascinated by any "one of a kind" museum.  This is the only attraction that covers  the services of all of our 47 vice  presidents up to early 2017--many times involving acid-tongued comments and playful jokes.       

            James Danforth Quayle, Vice President for George Bush (1989-93),  made some attempt to continue in politics after his term, but soon fell from view.   

             Daniel Johns, the Executive Director, met us at the museum entrance.  Originally the Quayle Museum started  with a some of Quayle's personal items, but Johns decided to expand the museum into a place that included activities for  students in the surrounding school districts so they could learn about the constitution and presidential campaigns.

            To make it more interesting for students they often are put on scavenger hunts to find answers to questions such as: Who was the only Native American vice president?  How many vice presidents died in office? Which vice presidents became president of the United States? 

            The museum, that is on two floors, presents the story of the vice presidents with the memorabilia from their lives, in sequence from John Adams, George Washington's Vice President.

            The museum stresses that five vice presidents and three losing vice presidential candidates were from Indiana. Johns said this was because at one time Indiana had been a swing state.  Our most recent vice president, Mike Pence is from Columbus, IN.

            We were astonished to find how little was known about many of the 19th century vice presidents who seemed to be very mediocre people with little qualification to be president if the opportunity arose.

             Johns has had trouble finding anything to display about them, since many had no posters, no newspaper stories and few personal artifacts.  

            Qualifications of candidates for the office improved in the latter half the 20th century when out of the 13 vice presidents, four became president and two almost became president.  This may be because later presidents wanted vice presidents they could give more responsibilities to.

            Johns noted how Theodor Roosevelt had been made Vice President because it was a useless position with no power and the power men of the time feared what Roosevelt might do to the monopolies they controlled if he was given power.  

            When President William McKinley was assassinated, Roosevelt fulfilled their fears by putting limits on monopolies.  The powerful business leaders then attempted to control the situation after he was election to his own term by giving him Charles Warren Fairbank (who was from Indiana) as a vice president expecting that Fairbanks would control Roosevelt's progressive programs.  While the vice president failed to put controls on Roosevelt, congress did block many of his programs. 

            Later more newspapers and magazines gave more  coverage to vice presidents.  Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Vice President John Nance Garner said, "The Vice Presidency isn't worth a pitcher of warm spit."  Garner also called himself the president's "spare tire."     

            Roosevelt's next Vice President Henry Wallace, however, went on to be a globe-trotting ambassador for the wheelchair-bound President.

            At one display we were struck with how ridicule may have led to Vice President Hubert Humphrey defeat by Richard Nixon when he was shown in a poster on President Johnson's knee being used as a puppet.

            Life and status have improved markedly in recent years for the vice presidents.  They are now furnished fine housing, a large staff, big SUVs with drivers and a good salary.

            Johns also makes visits to schools, concentrating on fourth, fifth and eighth graders.  He began his career as an actor and enjoys developing programs that get students involved by using interactive activities.

            The second floor has a large conference room where Johns can have the students (who range from  first graders to sophomores in high school) re-enact a presidential primarily so they can learn how presidential candidates are chosen. 





 


Nelson-Atkins Art Museum


HIGHLIGHT TOUR OF THE NELSON-ATKINS MUSEUM OF ART
            The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City is at of the top of  U.S, art museums according the U.S. Today, based on the Yelp.com list of 20 museums on the "number of reviews  and overall star ratings."
            Every time we have entered the Nelson-Atkins, we have enjoyed piece by piece a different highlight tour. Recently after exploring two special traveling exhibits, we were fortunate to discover our docent that day was Lisa Curran, an interior  designer who had graduated from Stephens College. She was eager to highlight five galleries for us on what became a delightful interactive tour.
            We started  in the Bloch Building, the recent modern addition of five glass pavilions to the east of the original building.  The Bloch building houses the contemporary,  African,  photography and special exhibitions.
            Curran would pick out an object to concentrate our attention on, such as a king's throne in the African exhibition that was made from beads she explained were imported and very expensive.

A King's throne in the African exhibition made from beads

            One  gallery of modern art was created by artists disturbed by bouts of depression, who were working out some of their own problems on their canvases, for example Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock .   She noted that all the artists in this gallery had known and influenced each other.
            Visitors vary on what canvases they prefer; for example. to Wayne the work of Mark Rothko just looks to be patches of color on color.  Curran enjoyed and valued his work and like most docents we have met made an attempt to help Wayne see the deeper meaning in the work.
             At the Post-Impressionists  we concentrated on Van Gogh, Monet and Gauguin. Curran commented  on their use of light and color and how they were the first to work in outside light and use it differently than previous artists. 
            On a more modern note we saw a number of Thomas Hart Benton works. We are familiar with his art from the Truman Library and state Capital in Jefferson City.  We had previously written a story on the traveling exhibition that been at the Nelson several years ago, highlighting Benton as one of Missouri's greatest artists.
            The major contribution to build the collection at the Nelson-Atkins came in the form of money from William Nelson.  That allowed the curators to purchase the collection during the Great Depression when a vast market was available because there were so few buyers.
            The museum is widely known for its extensive Chinese art collection.  Again getting the pieces was a matter of luck in that the man who purchased the art works, Laurence Sickman was in China in the 1930's.  He spoke fluent Chinese and had studied Chinese history and art.  Nelson gave him 11 million dollars to build a collection of Chinese paintings, sculpture and furniture for the museum at a time when prices were low and the art could be taken out of the country. The museum claims 7,000 pieces spanning 5000 years.


A Chinese carving, Guanyin of the Southern Sea

            In the Chinese section Curran called our attention to a large figure carved from wood and beautifully painted called Guanyin of the Southern Sea that she said with the finest sculpture of its kind outside of China. She said the Chinese would like some of the Nelson-Atkins collection of Chinese art back.
            Waiting for the High Lights Tour we had watched a presentation on the 11 million dollar renovation of the Bloch Galleries of European art that will open March 11, 2017. For art lovers this will certainly be worth a trip.