Sunday, August 13, 2017

HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRIC TREATMENT



    My first psychiatric hospital experience was as an intern at Nebraska Psychiatric Institute in 1954.  This was before drugs were used to control psychiatric  symptoms of mental illnesses and a variety of what are now labeled primitive methods of treatment were in use. 

    So recently at the Glore Psychiatric Museum in St Joseph, MO., I took a step back in time to those days and beyond to the truly dark ages of mental health treatment .

    The museum is on four floors of what once was the Lunatic Asylum #2 that housed 3000 patients.  In 1954 we relied on treatment methods that were of little help, but gave us some feeling  that some patients were improving. 

    Electric shock was being used for a variety of conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, homosexuality, and hysteria. When I watched a patient I was counseling on the table in convulsions my visual field narrowed and I almost passed out. 




Electric Shock was used for most every mental illness



    It has been found that the electric shock does work on some problems including certain kinds of depression, but it has been dropped for most other mental health conditions.  Since 1973 homosexuality has no longer been considered a mental illness.

    Also familiar to me from my time at Nebraska was the patient (manikin) in a tub of ice water that was used as a calming technique. 





Ice baths were also used for treatment of mental illness



    One section of the museum is given over to lobotomies that were still being used in the 1950s. Dr. Egas Moniz won a Noble Prize in 1949 for developing the procedure.  Later as a VA psychologist I worked with victims of this method of treatment that separated by surgery the frontal lobes--one's judgment center --from the rest of the brain.  The cases I worked with had lost the ability to be rehabilitated for life outside the hospital.

    From those 1950s methods the museum went back even further to more  primitive ways of dealing with the mentally ill: steel crates to hold violent patients, isolation in chains to calm them, wheels like the ones rats run on to teach them to be still. 

    Even further back it was dangerous to be mentally ill because you could be declared a witch or a cohort of the devil and be burned at the stake.  A manikin stands ready for execution, strapped to a pole with the firewood stacked at her feet.




Some mentally ill people were burned at the stake as witches

    The basement of the museum took us into another dimension of running a mental hospital: food.   The hospital had had gardens and animal barns to provide some of the tremendous amount of food consumer by 3000 patients.  The cooking area had tubs in which hundreds of pounds of potatoes could be cooked at one time. 

    Patients not only grew much of the food and helped with the cooking but other money making projects helped keep hem active.  Daily walks were also a part of the treatment.

    In the 1950s there were complaints about patients being required to work and complaints about this policy that was cutting into local businesses--so that treatment was dropped.  When I worked in a VA hospital after this kind of work was forbidden, I found some patients who had grounds' privileges were sneaking off into the woods to cultivate patches of vegetables.

    Cutting out patient labor made hospitals more expensive and with the widespread use of drugs for treatment, it was felt many of the patients could be discharged. 

    This had a number of consequences, one being an increase of crime and the sending of many mentally ill to prison.  It is shown at this hospital by the section that is now a Missouri prison with 250 prisoners. 

    My own experience with prisoners is that many of them should be receiving mental health treatment. My observations were agreed to by prisoners I have worked with who resent the mentally ill among them because they are so unpredictable.

    The Glore Museum is an eye-opening experience.   Visitors also have the opportunity to see three other small museums connected to the Glore which I will write about next week.




COSMOSPHERE INTERNATIONAL SPACE MUSEUM  


COSMOSPHERE INTERNATIONAL SPACE MUSEUM



     At the  Cosmosphere International Space Museum in Hutchison, Kansas, my wife Carla and I continued to be amazed that a town of only 42,000 people had been able to develop one of the top world's space  museums, a major destination for education about space exploration. 

     The museum started small when a local woman, Patricia Brooks Carey, bought a used star projector and opened a small planetarium in 1962.   In 1966 Dr. Robert H. Goddard's lab was added, Goddard being one of the first scientists to test rockets beginning in 1926. 

     By now the museum has the largest combined collection of U.S. and Russian space artifacts in the world.  It was easy to lose ourselves in the 105,000 square-feet of rockets, space capsules, astronaut suits and stories of creative and far-seeing personalities. 

      One of the planetarium's consultants was serving on a committee at the Smithsonian that was trying to find homes for thousands of space artifacts that had been released at the end of the Apollo program.  Adding artifacts from this collection led to the opening of the Kansas Cosmosphere and Discovery Center in 1980.  The museum continued to seek out and add artifacts and in 1997 a new venue was opened three times the size of the previous one.




One rocket is Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle the other Titan II rocket used in the Gemini Program



     Here is a quick overview.  As we approached the building, we saw two rockets standing at the corners. One was a Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle and the other a Titan II rocket used in the Gemini program.  The Titan was placed in the original rocket pit that had been used at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

     In the lobby was a Lockheed Blackbird overhead, the world's fastest spy plane at 2,200 miles-per-hour at 85,000 feet.  It had a black titanium surface that reached 600 degrees Fahrenheit--this one had flown many missions.

     The Germans had done much to develop rocketry in their V-1 and V-2 missile rockets which led the way to space exploration. A display told the story of how Wernher von Braun helped develop the two rockets and at the end of war how he took his team of scientists to the U.S. army rather be captured by the Russians.




A space shuttle stands in the lobby



     Despite the U.S. having von Braun, the Russians were ahead of us in the space race. A  section is devoted  to the Soviet Vostok Capsule--the U.S. was given a few capsules. The first man to use it to go into space was the Russian Yuri Gagarin.           

     Although the Apollo White Room doesn't look like much when you are standing in it you are standing in the actual room from which the astronauts entered their spacecraft on their way to the moon.

     The Apollo 13 had become famous after the narrow escape from death of its astronauts on a failed mission. The original Apollo 13 has been reconditioned after a massive search for its 80,000 components that had been spread across the world   The capsule itself had been taken back from a museum in Paris, France, after much political maneuvering. 

      We took in the three presentations that were available.  At the Digital Dome theater was "Dream Big: engineering our world," a 3D movie that told how engineers are making a better world including creating more space for humans by building earthquake-proof high rise buildings. We watched the Night Sky Live at the planetarium,

    We were  especially delighted at the live presentation in the Dr. Goddard's Lab by a young scientist who demonstrated  with energy, various forms of propulsion  used in rockets.  We were also impressed with the sophisticated questions asked by two ten-year -old girls sitting behind us. They were obviously very interested in science.

    We have visited the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C., Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and the  U.S Space and Rocket Center, Huntsville, Alabama.  We found them all outstanding, but this nearby museum in a small town was a match in terms of the artifacts available for examination.





Moon landing suits




The actual Apollo 13




MID-AMERICA  ALL-INDIAN CENTER


MID-AMERICA  ALL-INDIAN CENTER

    The Mid-America All-Indian Center in Wichita, Ks., focuses on the history and culture of the Nature Americans who originally populated this area.

    Our  visit started with an excellent film about the career of Francis Blackbear Bosin, a Native American artist who developed a painting style specifically to help Native Americans keep ties with their traditional tribal cultures. 

    Born in an Indian community he was sent off early to a school that was specifically developed to remove Indian children from their own culture and help them become members of American culture.  Another display emphasizes how wide spread the attempts were to put Indian children in boarding schools and convert them to our way of life while destroying theirs.

     Blackbear resisted and escaped from the program and spent the rest of his life dedicated to restoring Indian spiritually through his art work.



Blackbear Bosin mural "From Whence All Life"



    The center piece of the main display hall is “From Whence All Life,”  a lengthy mural Blackbear made for the Credit Bank of Wichita and is now on permanent loan to the museum.  In the mural Blackbear is attempting to show the philosophy of life common to this area before the white man came along and not only upset Indian traditions, but tried to eradicate them.

    A variety of pots are on display with a list of 19 terms used to describe them.  For example, a wedding vase has a double mouth and Micaceous vase is made with glittery mineral mica.





A double mouthed wedding vase





Seventy Native American Flags hand in a large gallery



    Seventy Native American flags hang in the large gallery.  The comments on each flag shown in the brochure  allows the visitor to get a brief history of each of the tribes.   The brochure says, "The Mid-America All-Indian Center is proud and honored to fly the colors of these nations.  The collection is a tribute to all Native People, and is constantly growing.  To add your nations flag to the collection please contact the Museum Staff."

    Fifteen of the flags are tribes that are now in Oklahoma.  The Ponca tribe of Oklahoma has a different flag than the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. The brochure while explaining the meaning of the symbols on the flags points out that the Ponca Tribe was forcefully moved to Oklahoma, but due to harsh conditions part of the tribe returned to Nebraska. 

    In the hall of flags is a series of large pictures of Indian tribes doing their special dances, such as the men's Chicken Dance, as a symbol of their Indian identity.   There is also a set of instructions for those who want to attend a dance, such as "6. Dance as long and as hard as you can,  When not dancing be quiet and respect the Arena."

    In one area the Indian Mascot Controversy is discussed.  They want no usage of terms like: The Indians, The Braves, or Redskins since they feel these are racial slurs.  Since 1963 no new mascots for sports teams with references to Native American have been created and the NCAA has a policy to have colleges remove these mascots that still exist. 

    After reading the materials I could understand why Redskins was on the negative list, but I still was not sure what they are unhappy about with other names, since it seemed to me in my ignorance that it should be a point of pride that we recognize them as powerful symbols. 

    Outside the museum overlooking the river stands a 44 foot statue on a 30 foot stone base Keeper of the Plains created by Blackbear Bosin.  The Keeper's hands are raised in supplication to the rising sun.  At the base are a collection of Indian symbols, weapons and tools. 

    A small Outdoor Learning Center stands between the statue and the Indian Center.  It contains a tipi, a travois and native edible and medicinal plants.

     I noticed several dozen children were being led through a hands-on exploration of the center.  Museums like this one do a good job of teaching  children and adults much about the creativity shown by various cultures.    



 
A 30 foot stone base Keeper of the Plains created by Blackbear Bosin

Thursday, July 6, 2017

Missouri Town 1855, Living History


MISSOURI TOWN 1855



     When touring Missouri Town 1855 near Blue Springs, I enjoyed learning what everyday life was like in western Missouri then.  

     The first stop was the kitchen at the large Squire's House where  five ladies in dresses that reached their shoes were preparing a meal with emphasis on the bread.    A fire in the fireplace was ablaze to provide the hot coals that would be placed under and on top of the Dutch Oven.  Since heat varies they needed to become experts at judging when the bread was fully baked.   One of the rewards of volunteering as re-enactors is that they get to eat what they prepare.   

     Down the hill I found the smallest lawyer's office I have ever seen, and a bit latter the smallest schoolhouse that might comfortably seat 12 children.  Attendance would have been sporadic for some children because they were needed at home for work and in some cases did not have the eight dollars required for yearly tuition.



A really small school house, seats 12 max



     What I was experiencing was authentic surviving buildings from the seven county area of western Missouri as they existed in 1855. The year 1855 was chosen because it was the last year before the Kansas border fighting began to disrupt the area with pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in open conflict.

      Spread over 30 acres are 26 pre-Civil-War buildings, restored and furnished as they would have been at that time,  providing an interesting step back into the past with re-enactors available to help you understand what you are seeing--the structures, furniture, equipment, crops in the fields and gardens and the livestock breeds .

     The day I visited only two other places were staffed with re-enactors.  At the blacksmith shop three men worked with the aid of a large bellows that provided the heat for two projects.  On one side a master blacksmith was helping an apprentice make a pair of tongs.  On the other another blacksmith was shaping a circular iron object that would go on sale in the gift shop.



An apprentice practices his skills under the eye of a master blacksmith



     The other re-enactors were two women in the sheep section.  The sheep had recently been sheared, an exciting occasion for the school children that day.   Three of the ewes had four lambs, one of which was immature and needed to be regularly fed with a bottle since she couldn't nurse.

     Cow and horse breeds of the 1800s were present and the barns and outbuildings looked in good shape, and in keeping with the times were in need of paint.  The largest house was the Greek Revival Colonel's House that would have been owned by a affluent Southern planter.



Children can get up close to a variety of farm animals



    At the end of my tour a seven-minute introductory movie gave me a sense of what it would have been like at the time since in the movie the town was filled with re-enactors showing us how the buildings were used.   The church had mystified me the way it was split  into two sections: when I saw that women were seated on one side and men on the other, I knew why.

     In the movie the tavern filled with customers with drinks and food seemed much larger and the two rooms upstairs made more sense when I recognized the one with multiple small beds was for males and the one with the large bed for women..   Men were much more likely to be traveling and in need for a place to sleep.

     The tavern was probably the busiest place in the village since it was the stop for travelers,  those in need of gossip and a good drink.  In addition the village mail was delivered here.

     Started in 1963 with a few buildings it took 20 years for the major work on reconstruction to be done by a volunteers from a multitude of places coordinated by Jackson County Parks and Rec.

     A living history museum such as this one holds a special charm, not only because the visitors find so much to enjoy but because the re-reactors so obviously enjoy playing their roles and sharing what they know with their audience.  



This family had a better than average income; see the piano?

Florida Museum of Natural History


FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

   

     What an amazing step-back-in-time we had at the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida campus in Gainesville! 

     For over 100 years the staff at the  museum has been building  an archeological collection that is now considered to be the best Southeast attraction of its kind.  It  focuses on the evolution of fossils and animals and the way of life of the Indians when the  Spanish in the 15 hundreds met with them in the land that is now called Florida.      

    A film explained how faculty members found fossils under water in the local lakes and rivers.  Two sections especially drew our attention. 

    The "Florida Fossils: Evolution of Life and Land" starts with fossils from the Eocene period 65 million years ago when Florida was still under water. We followed  the evolution of life forms up to the recent Pleistocene period 14,000 years ago when humans first arrived on the scene. 

    The skeletons of the various animals are 90 percent complete due to the preservative nature of the silt under which they were kept. 

    We saw a range of  the fossil skeleton  remains: cats that no longer exist but looked like big saber tooth tigers, a terror bird that looked like a small T-Rex, a 15-foot tall ground slough, a horse the size of a great Dane and an animal that looked to be a combination of a bear and dog.



Saber tooth tiger like cat hunts an early horse



    Shark Jaw Row took us past shark jaws that ranged in height from two to nine feet and included the jaw of the extinct Megalodon, the largest shark that ever lived.

     Most fossils were found within 100 miles of Gainesville.   Videos at the displays taught us about the  various periods of the area's history.

     The second especially  interesting section, with displays inside and outside the museum,  celebrates the way of life of the Calusa Indians and how they made use of their water-filled environment. Many scenes show realistic life-size figures engaged in various activities.

    We entered a palm-thatched hut and found ourselves in a Calusa leader's home during a ceremony where the chief and his wife were greeting an important visitor.  The setting was 1564 and the characters were based on Spanish records of the period.




A Calusa Leader greets  a visitor in a ceremony in his home



     Panels explained that many of the artifacts in the scene were the result of trading and some came from as far away as Missouri. 

    One scene shows a family outside a hut which is resting on the sea shells the Calusa used to build up the land above sea level to make the area habitable. 




The islands they lived on were often built up by layers of seashells



    Another scene  shows a native outside his Calusa hut in an area filled with birds and sea food available at the time.  Using  a labeled map visitors can become more aware of where various foods and raw materials were available. 

    Given the water world they lived in,  boat building was a common occupation of the Calusa, and in several areas boats were displayed.  

    On a TV scene two scientists discussed how the age of the boats was determined and the kind of wood used.  In one area of Florida the remains of 101 boats were found with ages over a 1,000 years apart.  In 1763 Spain ceded Florida to Britain and the last surviving Calusa were moved to Cuba. 

    Another section has scientists working at their tables studying the DNA of butterflies and other insects to determine who was related to whom and how. 

    The  Butterfly Rainforest exhibit has  over 1,500 species of moths and butterflies and many birds, plants and trees.  At certain times a guide  holds some butterflies close up and tells visitors about  each one in detail before it is released.   

    When visitors stand at the Cultural Plaza,  the museum is bordered on one side by the Phillips Center for the performing arts and on the other side is the Harn Museum of Art.  So eventually we will try to explore these other attractions. 




Calusa tools and weapons




The Terror Bird looks like a small T-Rex

Tuesday, July 4, 2017

KANSAS AVIATION MUSEUM


WHICHITA KANSAS AVIATION MUSEUM

     When visiting the Kansas Aviation Museum in Wichita, I worked my way up the narrow curving steps to the control tower, at 1500 feet one of the highest points in the city.  The view of the sky line was breathtaking.

       Attractive modern buildings were on one side and on the other side was the museum  area with visitors exploring the collection of fascinating  airplanes that had been designed or redesigned and manufactured in the city. The planes had met our country's needs in peace and war and contributed to the growth and prosperity of the city.   

     On the field were the small airplanes: a Cessna, several Beechcrafts and a Learjet that had greatly expanded private use. These were the planes the city based its reputation on as the "Air Capital of the World."

      Their publicity claims they have manufactured more than half of the world's light aircraft and business jets, in addition to being a major builder of commercial airliners.     









The bottom  picture is of a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress first built in 1952 and continues as our heavy bomber to this day.



     Standing out on the runway amidst the collection of planes built here, including a Boeing 737 and Boeing 727, was an old Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, the massive bomber first used in 1952 that continues to be our main heavy bomber to this day.

            Although the prototypes were built at the Boeing plant in Seattle, in 1957 all production was moved to Wichita where production ended in 1962 with 742 airplanes having been built.  Today the B-52 is considered the long rifle of the air force because it has a range of 8,800 miles without aerial refueling.

            One of the docents told me that if I was staying until Saturday, I would be able to climb inside and explore their B 29, the bomber used in the Pacific war zone in World War II. Too bad it did not fit my schedule. 

            The area was the Wichita Municipal Airport from the 1930's until 1954.  In those days planes needed refueling on the way from one coast to another.  Wichita became that point, and as a result many famous people of the day such as Fred Astaire, Bob Hope and Howard Hughes walked and mingled on terminal's floors.  The area became known as the "Country Club without dues."   

            During World War II this was the fifth busiest airport in the country because it was the stopping off point for coast to coast flights.  It was also the testing field for the tens of  thousands of airplanes being built for the war effort in Wichita.

            The airport stopped being a commercial stop in 1954, but continued as a military base until1984, and became a museum in 1991.  I found the first of the three floors a bit dull at times since engines and propellers by themselves don't interest me as much as some others might find them 





The Swallow, 1920, the first commercial airplane built



            The second floor, however, had a remarkable collection of private planes with names well known to us: Cessna and Beechcrafts.  A variety of cockpits were available for examination including the freedom to get into the cockpit if you are limber enough. The cockpits had been used for the first training experience of future pilots so they could familiarize themselves with the complicated instrument panels. 

             Hands-on experiences for children included a trainer and a cockpit where visitors can raise and lower the planes' wheels. 

            Third floor has the Kansas aviation military exhibit with a time line of its involved in our wars. Along the walls are cases with an impressive collection of model airplanes to show the dozens of different planes that have been built here. The displays were put together by Women's Aeronautical Association of Wichita. 

            A very attractive early drone called the Pave Cricket is on display.  Built in 1987 and cancelled in 1989, its job was to seek out enemy radars that control anti-aircraft artillery or surface to air missiles and defuse them.  While impressive looking it evidently didn't do the job or else was too easy to shoot down.

            Before I came I had not been aware of the large role that Wichita had played in the development of air travel and was impressed with the range of artifacts that are available to visitors who visit the museum.




A training cockpit





The control tower

National Frontier Trails Museum, Independence, MO


NATIONAL FRONTIER TRAILS MUSEUM





A large covered wagon stands ready to be loaded at the National Frontier Trails Museum in Independence, Missouri



          “Go West, young man,” a phrase popularly credited to Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, was actually said by John Soule, a newspaper reporter from Indiana. 

          What Greeley really said was: “This migration to Oregon wears an aspect of insanity.  We do not believe 9/10 of them will ever reach the Columbia alive.” Greeley was wrong—9/10 of the 250,000 emigrants did make it to the Columbia River.

          This was the first thing we learned when we recently visited the National Frontier Trails Museum in Independence, “The Queen City of the Trails, ” the “jumping-off” point in the 1840s for the Santa Fe and Oregon trails.

           We felt like we had discovered the mother lode of pioneer lore.  Here are housed over 2,300 overland trail diaries, letters and first person recollections that are available for visitors including those conducting research.  The library is the largest in the world on experiences on the overland trails and focuses particularly on the years between 1820 and 1870.

            Our personal library includes at least 80 books on frontier and pioneer life west of the Mississippi, most of them written by women as diaries, letters home and reminiscences.   Without women’s need to communicate what life was like on the frontier we would know little about what problems were overcome in settling the West. 

            We were given a personally guided tour by Director/Archivist John Mark Lambertson, who pointed out that American visitors often don’t stop to thoroughly sample the excerpts from letters and diaries that are the core of the exhibits, but that visitors from foreign countries such as Germany and England are enchanted by the opportunity to study the personal experiences of the people involved in this great expansion.  Last year tourists from 35 foreign countries were among the 20,000 who visited.





A statue in honor of pioneer women stands outside of the National Frontier Trails Museum in Independence, Missouri



          Fourth and eighth grade teachers also find this a rich source of material on Western expansion for their American history classes; 6000 students attended last year. 

          For the more casual visitor many quotes from primary sources are displayed throughout this small, but important museum. For example, historian Francis Parkman wrote in 1846: “But let the emigrant be as enthusiastic as he may, he will find enough to damp his ardor.  His wagons will stick in the mud; his horses will break loose; harness will give way; and axletrees prove unsound. His bed will be a soft one, consisting often of black mud of the richest consistency… The wolves will entertain him with a concert at night, and skulk around him by day, just beyond rifle shot; his horse will step into badger holes… A profusion of snakes will glide away from under his horse’s feet, or quietly visit him in his tent at night; while the pertinacious humming of unnumbered mosquitoes will banish sleep from his eyelids.”  

          An award-winning film introduces visitors to the importance of the trails that had their starting points here.   Traders used the 900 mile Santa Fe Trail begun in 1821 for swapping goods between the U.S. and Mexico.  The 2000 mile Oregon Trail heavily traveled by 1843 was used by settlers seeking Oregon on the Northern route and for adventurers seeking gold in California on the equally long and treacherous Southern route.

           The film also shows the landmarks along the way and rivers that needed to be followed by emigrants to find the green grass, water and mountain passes.  At the free public spring west of the museum emigrants used to wash themselves and water their livestock before setting out.  “Swales,’” or grassed over wagon ruts still exist south of the museum.

          After the film the tour begins with a display of accounts of why people went West.  The usual reasons were free land, to escape from the law, trading, and to find gold, and a more unusual reason was to go fishing.

           The trails used had originally been discovered by trappers and traders; maps made by the mountain men were invaluable in discovering the best routes west.  One small interesting display allowed us to feel the types of furs those trappers were hunting: fox, bobcat, beaver, mink and otter.  The huge demand for the stylish beaver hats greatly stimulated exploration.

          Lambertson said an often overlooked point is the tremendous impact of the trails that started here in the process of the U.S. obtaining a third of its land.  Otherwise Canada and Mexico would be occupying much of our West.  Oregon, Washington, Idaho and part of Montana originally belonged to England, but our government kept giving our citizens land grants in the area, so that when England came to take it back we in fact owned it.

          The same thing happened to the southern part which originally belonged to Mexico, but we settled it and then took over the immense area that is now California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma. 

          A small mill was started on the museum site in 1840, which grew into the large Waggoner-Gates Milling Company which closed in 1957.  In 1967 most of the building was destroyed by an explosion.  The State of Missouri in 1989 used what remained of the mill to build the National Frontier Trails Museum. 

          If visitors read the quotations from letters and diaries throughout the museum, they will gain an emotional feel for what our ancestors experienced when travel was at best 15 miles a day, wagons broke down, cherished family heirlooms had to be abandoned, and children died suddenly of strange maladies.

           They will also learn more about our westward expansion which many historians consider to be the greatest voluntary, mass migration overland in the history of the world.  For more information go to htpp://frontiertrailsmuseum.org.

 




The smaller covered wagon that was used by most settlers on their way to the west.